Outfielder Jacob May was designated for assignment in a corresponding move.
Gonzalez, 33, began last season with the White Sox, who traded him to the Texas Rangers on Aug. 31. He finished 8-13 with a 4.62 ERA in 27 starts last season. He struggled after being traded to Texas, going 1-3 with a 6.45 ERA in five starts.
"Bringing Miggy back not only strengthens the options for our pitching staff but also returns another quality individual to our clubhouse," Rick Hahn, the White Sox's senior vice president/general manager, said in a statement.
In six seasons, Gonzalez has a career record of 52-54 with a 3.95 ERA in 871 1/3 innings over 152 appearances (145 starts). He spent the first four seasons with the Baltimore Orioles before signing with the White Sox in 2016.