The move reunites Cervelli with former New York Yankees teammate Derek Jeter, the Marlins' CEO and part owner, and Miami special adviser Jorge Posada, whom he considers a mentor.
Cervelli will back up Jorge Alfaro at catcher for the Marlins.
Cervelli, 33, finished last season with the Atlanta Braves after he was waived by the Pittsburgh Pirates. He had requested his release after he worked his way back from another concussion that had appeared to put his career in jeopardy.
In 37 games with the Braves, he hit .281 with two home runs and seven RBIs. A career .269 hitter, he had hit .193 in 34 games for the Pirates last season before he was sidelined by his concussion. He has suffered several concussions in his big league career.
He played his first seven seasons with the Yankees before joining the Pirates in 2015.
MLB.com first reported that the Marlins and Cervelli were working on an agreement.
ESPN's Jeff Passan contributed to this report.