A player can be placed on the reserve/COVID-19 list if they have tested positive or have been in close contact with someone who has.
Edelman, 34, is on injured reserve after having a knee procedure and has not played since a Week 7 loss to the San Francisco 49ers.
"I feel for Julian. Julian is such a great friend, but if there's one thing I know, if there's anyone that can find a way to overcome all those things, it's him. I know he'll do that," said longtime Patriots captain Matthew Slater. "Right now, we just want to pray that he's OK, that he's feeling well, and this is something he can move past rather quickly."
"The whole virus thing is really tough, but Jules, like he always does, will bounce back. He's one of the tougher guys we got in the locker room," added fellow captain David Andrews.
Asked earlier in the day if he was confident that Edelman would return this season -- before it was announced that Edelman had been placed on the reserve/COVID-19 list -- coach Bill Belichick told sports radio WEEI: "I know he is working extremely hard. I would certainly never count Julian out of anything. He has tremendous will. A great work ethic ... It would take a lot for me to count him out."
ESPN's Mike Reiss contributed to this report.