Cologne goalkeeper Timo Horn saved the spot-kick from Niederlechner in the 27th minute, before both sides scored in the final minutes of the game to play out a 1-1 draw, a result which leaves Augsburg four points above a relegation playoff position.
Describing his missed penalty, Niederlechner said: "I then made the biggest mistake you can commit as a penalty taker.
"Usually, I hit it to the right corner but I heard a comment [from an opponent] because of those damn ghost games.
"He shouted to the keeper to remember where I always aim at. And that led to me changing my mind. That was a huge mistake. I let myself be influenced by it.
"I have often been the hero, but today I am the fool."
The Bundesliga was allowed to return in mid-May, but fans remain locked out.
Talks between the German league and the political-decision makers to allow some supporters back into the stands amid the pandemic have started.