The Mariners confirmed the 30-year-old's signing on Wednesday, in a boost to Alen Stajcic's team as they aim to avoid a fourth straight wooden spoon.
Urena, who scored for his country at the 2014 World Cup in Brazil against Uruguay, has made 67 appearances for Los Ticos, scoring 15 times.
He arrives at Gosford after a stint at South Korea's Gwangju FC and has also had stints in Russia, Denmark and the United States during his career.
Urena will link up with the Mariners squad after completing a quarantine period following his arrival in Australia.
"Someone with his football background will prove a big benefit not just on the pitch, but also off the pitch where there is plenty that our young players can learn from him," Stajcic said.
Urena is the third overseas player announced by the Mariners in recent days with Polish winger Michal Janota and Serbian midfielder Stefan Jankovic's signings confirmed last week.