Goldman becomes the sixth former Bears player to sign with the Falcons this offseason, joining running back Damien Williams, wide receiver Damiere Byrd, offensive linemen Germain Ifedi and Elijah Wilkinson and defensive back Teez Tabor.
Former Bears general manager Ryan Pace, who was fired by Chicago after last season, is now a senior personnel executive with the Falcons.
Goldman joins a defensive line depth chart in Atlanta that is led by two-time Pro Bowl selection Grady Jarrett and also includes defensive tackles Anthony Rush and Vincent Taylor. The Falcons play a base 3-4 defensive scheme.
Goldman, 28, had two years remaining on his contract when he was released in a move that saved the Bears $6.66 million in cap space.
Goldman was an important player in Chicago's 3-4 scheme as a run-stopping nose tackle. He signed a four-year contract extension worth $42 million in 2018 and was selected to the Pro Bowl as an alternate a year later.
He opted out of the 2020 season because of COVID-19 concerns and missed the first three games with injury last season. Overall, he appeared in 14 games last season with 10 starts.
A second-round pick by the Bears in the 2015 draft, Goldman has 13 sacks and 175 tackles in 81 games.
ESPN's Courtney Cronin contributed to this report.