The 37-year-old, who is third on Juventus' all-time appearances list behind Alessandro Del Piero and Gianluigi Buffon, made the announcement after his side lost 4-2 to Inter Milan in Wednesday's Coppa Italia final.
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"I give way to the youngsters, as next year I will not be here," he told Sport Mediaset. "On Monday I will say goodbye to my stadium, and Fiorentina will be my last match. I say goodbye with joy to this team, of which I will be the biggest fan, because Juve will always stay with me."
Chiellini joined Juve in 2004 from Livorno, going on to win nine league titles and five Italian Cups during his time in Turin.
"We had these 10 magnificent years, it is up to the others to continue now," he added. "I did everything I could, I hope that I left something.
"It is my choice 100 percent, I am happy to leave at such a high level, because for many years I have said I didn't want to finish struggling and not being able to play at my level. I gave it my all, soon I will be the biggest Juventus fan from the outside. After so many years within this club, you cannot shake it off."
He announced his retirement from international football last month and his last game with the 'Azzurri' will be in June 1st when the European champions play against their South American counterparts Argentina at Wembley in June.
With 116 appearances for the national team, Chiellini is joint fifth in the all-time Italy charts alongside Andrea Pirlo, with only Daniele De Rossi, Paolo Maldini, Fabio Cannavaro and Gianluigi Buffon ahead of him.
However, he does not appear to be hanging up his boots just yet.
Information from ESPN's Jeff Carlisle and Reuters was used in this report.