Despite finding themselves 3-1 down early in the second half, Jesse Marsch's Leeds side mounted an epic comeback with a vociferous home support behind them to take all three points and move up to 12th in the standings.
"It was the last home game [before the World Cup] and the crowd is like the 12th man," said Crysencio Summerville, who earned a first-half penalty and scored the fourth in the 84th minute, having snatched a last-gasp winner at Liverpool last weekend.
"Leeds United is incredible and the crowd give a lot. We have to keep building the momentum."
Marsch, meanwhile, said the comeback was "hard to put into words" and praised his side's belief throughout.
Leeds started the game on the attack and were awarded a penalty in the third minute when Summerville was fouled in the box and a composed Rodrigo stepped up to send goalkeeper Mark Travers the wrong way and open the scoring.
Bournemouth remained unperturbed and equalised through Marcus Tavernier before Philip Billing directed a first-time strike into the roof of the net to put them ahead.
The visitors scored their third goal two minutes into the second half when Tavernier turned provider again on a counter-attack that began from a Leeds corner and was finished in style by Dominic Solanke.
Leeds refused to give in and struck twice in eight minutes to level the score, with 20-year-old Sam Greenwood first curling an effort past the keeper from outside the box before his delivery from a corner was headed home by Liam Cooper.
In the 84th minute, Leeds stormed forward on the counter-attack again before Summerville burst into the box to latch on to a through ball from Wilfried Gnonto to make it 4-3.
For Bournemouth, who dropped to 15th place, it was a case of deja vu as they squandered a two-goal lead for a second consecutive match having lost 3-2 at home to Tottenham Hotspur last week.
"I am gutted," Tavarnier said. "I think everyone in there feels it. It happened last week, it happened again this week.
"We have a two-goal cushion and have given a multiple amount of goals away. It is unacceptable, we can't keep doing this as teams at this level will punish us."